Sebagai Sarana Menyambung Tali Persaudaraan dan Memajukan Ekonomi Bangsa

Economics

A. Read the text!

There are four basic types of competition in business that form a continuum from pure competition through monopolistic competition and oligopoly to monopoly. At one end of the continuum, pure competition result when every company has a similar product. Companies that deal in commodities such as wheat or corn are often involved in pure competition. In pure competition, it is often the ease and efficiency of distribution that influences purchase.

In contrast, in monopolistic competition several companies may compete for the sale of items that may be substituted. The classic examples of monopolistic competition are coffee and tea. If the price of one is perceived as too high, consumers may begin to purchase the other. Coupons and other discounts are often used as part of a marketing strategy to influence sales

Oligopoly occurs when a few companies control the majority of sales for a product of service. For example, only five airlines carriers control more than 70 percent of all ticket sales in the Unites States. In oligopoly, serious competition is not considered desirable because it would result in reduced revenue for every company in the group. Although price wars do occur, in which all companies offer substantial savings to customers, a somewhat similar tendency to raise price simultaneously is also usual.

Finally monopoly occurs when only one firms sell the products. Traditionally, monopolies have been tolerated for producers of goods and services that have been considered basic or essential, including electricity and water. In these case, it is government control, rather than competition, that protects and influences sales.

Answer the questions below!

  1. What the characteristics of monopoly?
  2. What is the best title of the passage?
  3. What is the main idea of the 1st paragraph?
  4. …….monopolies have been tolerated for producers”  (paragraph 4)

What does the underlined word mean?

  1. What I s the synonym of the word influence?
  2. What is oligopoly?
  3. Where was the article printed
  4. How many competition are there in a business? Please mention it!

B. Read each set of sentences. Decide the order in which thing happened. Write two sentences about each set of information. Begin each pair of answer with the same words.

His car broke down. He went the rest of the way by taxi. He was driving to Semarang. For a meeting.

A         : ……………………………………………………………

B          : ……………………………………………………………

We left the building. We were having a meeting. The fire alarm went off.

A         : ……………………………………………………………

B          : ……………………………………………………………

They took our company over. We were losing a lot of money. They made a number of people redundant.

A         : ……………………………………………………………

B          : ……………………………………………………………

My secretary brought it down. I was having lunch in the canteen. The fax arrived.

A         : ……………………………………………………………

B          : ……………………………………………………………

Mr. Yamichi arrived at the airport. He came straight to the office. The chauffeur was waiting

A         : ……………………………………………………………

B          : ……………………………………………………………

C. In the following sentences, put one of the verbs in brackets into the past continuous and the other verb into the simple past.

  1. (Walk, notice) the security guard noticed the broken window while he was walking round the warehouse.
  2. (go, meet I first………..Mr. Rodriguez when i…….round Mexico on a marketing trip.
  3. (interrupt, give) when she …………her presentation, someone at the back of the room……………to ask a question.
  4. (finalize, ring up) while my personal assistant…………arrangements for my trip to Brazil, the clients………..to cancel the visit
  5. (notice, look) the auditors………….a large unauthorized withdrawal when they…….through the account.
  6. (drop, take) one of the removal men ……………my computer when he ………it into my office.

D. Complete the sentences by putting the verbs into the past perfect

  1. I couldn’t get into the office yesterday morning because I ………….(leave) my keys at home.
  2. We cold not call our new low-fat spread Mono, because one of our competitors ……….(already/choose) the name
  3. I found out about the vacancy too late. Whey my application form arrived, they …………….(appoint) someone.
  4. By the time he sold off the shares, his original investment…………(grow) by 83%.
  5. He found his first few weeks at Astra International Ltd very difficult because he ……….(not/study) accountancy before.
  6. The bank returned the cheque tome because I ……..(not/sign) it

E. Read and Complete. Use the correct forms of the verbs

  1. Dr. Kirov often (hear) strange stories from his patients.
  2. He (listen) to a strange story now
  3. A patient (tell) him about something that (happen) to him two years ago
  4. One evening he (see) a strange light in the sky
  5. At the time he (stand) in a field all alone. He (watch) the stars with his binoculars
  6. Suddenly, a flying saucer (land) near him. A tall woman (come) out.
  7. Since then I (see) other flying saucers, doctor! The patient is saying
  8. I’m sure that flying saucers (come) here for a long time
  9. And for the last two years that woman (follow) me now.
  10. I’m sure that woman (follow) me now
  11. She (stand) outside the window now!
  12. Can’t you see her? She (stand) there for the last twenty minutes.

F. Find the verbs

Mrs. Ashley is talking about Nick. What are the missing words?

I. …………(1) very worried about Nick. He wasn’t doing very well at school. In fact, he ……….(2) it. He…………..(3) his exams and he had got into trouble with the headmaster. He ………..(4) completely. He was only interested in…………..(5) his guitar. Harry………….. (6) to talk to him. So did I. but it was no good. Nick Just………….to talk to us. We …………….what to do.

Here are the missing words. Where do they belong?

a. didn’t want                     b. didn’t know

c. had failed                        d. used to be

e. playing                            f. had changed

g. used to hate                    h. used to try

G. Study the dialogue. Note downs examples of each of these tense. (a) past simple, (b) past continuous, (c) present perfect, or (d) past perfect

A   : I’ll never forget the trouble we had with that face cream. We launched it and you know it was a real winner. I mean, it was going really well.

B    : Hmmmm, great

A   : When suddenly people started phoning and complaining it was burning their skin.

B    : Burning their skin? You mean, like a kind of allergy?

A   : Yeah, it was making read marks in their faces. The newspapers heard about it and wanted to know what were doing about it.

B    :  Huh typical. They don’t exactly help, do they? So what did you do?

A   : We didn’t know what to do. You see, we’d tested it for over six month, and you know there had been no bad reaction to it.

B    : Well, so what was the problems?

A   : Well, we’d invested a lot in the product and the launch. I mean you know what advertising costs are these days, then suddenly the number of complaints doubled in the space of  a week or so.

B    : Doubled? Incredible? Did you manage to keep it quite?

A         : No, our managing director got more than a bit worried. Said all this was harming the company’s image. So we recalled the products and lost a lot of money. I tell you, the only people with red faces were us. Since then, we’ve kept away from skin care product.

Sumber : Hand Out English Professional I Stie PGRI DEWANTARA JOMBANG by Ida Setyawati, S.Pd, M.Pd

Indeks Bahasa Inggris I

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