GRAMMAR POINTS UNIT 5
1. PAST CONTINUOUS
The past continuous is formed with was/were + the-ing form of the verb
|+||I/He/She/It was working
You/They/We were working
|–||I/He/She/It was not (wasn’t) working
You/They/We were not working
|?||Was I/He/She/It working? Yes, I/He/She/It was
No, I/He/She/It was not
Were You/They/We were working? Yes, I/They/We were
No, I/They/were not
B. We use past continuous to talk about an action or activity that was in progress a ta particular moment of time in the past.
At 3.14 yesterday afternoon, Mr. Deni was seeing some clients in Medan
C. We can use past continuous to talk about action that was already in progress and which was interrupted by another action
We were discussing our expansion plans when the chairman suddenly announced his resignation
We can re-phase this sentence using while + past continuous
While were discussing our expansion plans, the chairman suddenly announced his resignation
The activity may or may not continue after the interruption :
Paul was doing some filling when his boss asked him to fetch an invoice (Paul fetched the invoice and then probably carried on with the filling)
Paul was doing some filling when the fire broke out
(Paul probably stopped doing the filling at this point)
D. Sequence of tense
The past continuous tells us what was happening up to the point when the phone rang. When the phone rang, I was talking to the client
The past simple tells us what happened afterwards :
When the phone rang, I answered.
2. PAST PERFECT AND PRESENT PERFECT
The past perfect is formed with had + the past participle of the verb :
|+||I/He/She/It/You/They/We had worked|
|–||I/He/She/It/You/They/We had not (hadn’t) worked|
|?||Had I/He/She/It/You/They/We worked?
Yes, I/He/She/It/You/They/We had
No, I/He/She/It/You/They/We had not (hadn’t)
B. Previous and subsequent events
The past perfect is used to refer back to completed actions that happened before other events in the past. Compare :
When I arrived at the office , the meeting started.
(I arrived at the office, and then the meeting started)
when I arrived at the office, the meeting had started)
(The meeting started before I got to the office, I was late)
In 1, it is also possible to use as soon as and after in place of when
In 2, it is also possible to use by the time in place of when
C. Correct mistakes in these sentences. Use a lot, many or much
- They don’t have much vegetarian dishes here. A lot of/many
- How many does it cost?
- The restaurant hasn’t got much tables left
- I don’t have many time at the moment
- I drink many coffee
- There aren’t much hotels in the city center
- His business travel costs many money
- How much days of business trips a year do you have?
- How many cash do you have in your wallet
- There are much flight at the weekend
D. Underlined the correct words to complete it
Zaffira : there are some/any good restaurant in the center?
Ivan : Yes, but there isn’t some/any parking. We could go there by a taxi
Zaffira : Do they serve some/any vegetarian dishes?
Ivan : I don’t think so. How about the Marina? They do some/any great fish dishes, and they have some/any vegetarian starters, too.
Zaffira : Good idea, I’ll see if they’ve got a table for 3 pm.
E. Complete the dialogue. Use the correct from of there is/there are?
Mr. Boby : …………………a flight at 7 p m. You arrive at 9 pm
Mr. Adam : ………………a hotel near the airport?
Mr. Boby : Yes, ……….three airport hotels. You are in the Meridian Continental
Mr. Adam : Thanks. After the meeting with Ms. Jane, …………lunch. …………..any good restaurant in the city there?
Mr. Boby : No, …………… Go to the Golden Globe……………a reservation for you and Ms. Jane at 1.40 pm.
Mr. Adam : Great. How do we get there? …………a good transport system?
Mr. Boby : No, …………….. take a taxi to the restaurant
Mr. Adam : OK
F. Put the verbs in the following sentences into the future structure by using will or present continuous!
Mr. Fadli : I’ve booked your flight and hotel for business travel to Indonesia. You are …………(leave) on 18th at 10.30 am, and that means you ……..(be) in Jakarta late afternoon.
Ms. Chris : What about hotel?
Mr. Fadli : You……….(stay) at Novotel Hotel and you………(have) to get a taxi there from the airport. Your first meeting is on Tuesday, and you…….(see) Mr. Yuliardi from the Ministry of Agriculture at 7 pm.
Mr. Chris : ………….(I/need) any vaccinations?
Mr. Fadli : I’m not sure, but leave it with me. I …………(phone) the travel agent, and I …………(let) you know what she says.
G. Read and Answer
The weatherman makes predictions about the weather. For example, what do you think are the missing words here?
- Do you think it………..rain tomorrow?
- Well, the weatherman says it…..rain, so e can go on picnic if you want to
- Tomorrow…….be fine day. It…….be very warm
- There………be a little rain but it probably………..fall here in the south.
- In other words, it ………fall only in the north and east
- The west………have a good day without rain, too.
H. Find the conversation
This is what Mr. Young said to Mrs. Young one Saturday morning ten years ago. This her part of the conversation. Find his part of the conversation.
- Where are you going, David?
- Oh? Why?
- When will you be back?
- Well, don’t be late. Remember that we’re having lunch at one o’clock.
- Oh, by the way, I need some tea from the supermarket. Could you get some for me?
- Bye! Have a nice walk.
- In a few days
- Yes, I’ll get some on my way back from the park
- To the park
- Because I’d like to take a walk and get some fresh air
- I won’t forget. Don’t worry.
Sumber : Hand Out English Professional I Stie PGRI DEWANTARA JOMBANG by Ida Setyawati, S.Pd, M.Pd