Sebagai Sarana Menyambung Tali Persaudaraan dan Memajukan Ekonomi Bangsa

MODAL VERBS : OBLIGATION AND NECESSITY (MUST, HAVE TO, NEEDN’T)

A. Form

A number of different modal verbs can be used to express obligation. Look at the list below. All of these are followed by the bare infinitive :

OBLIGATION                  NO OBLIGATION                 PROHIBITION

Must                                  needn’t                                     musnt’

Have to                              don’t have to                            can’t

Have got to                        haven’t got to                           (be) not allowed to

B. Expressing obligation

–         We use must, have to, and have got to say that something is obligatory :

I have to finish my report by 4.10

–         We use needn’t, don’t have to, and haven’t got to if something isn’t necessary :

You needn’t stay late. We have cancelled the meeting

We don’t have to pay our bill until the 30th

–         We use musnt’, can’t and not allowed to say that something is forbidden :

I’m sorry, we can’t be allowed to give you your bank balance by phone

C. Talking about obligations and telling people what to do

Have (got) to, don’t have to, can’t and (be) not allowed to are more common hen the speaker is talking about obligations and prohibitions. Must, needn’t and musnt’t are more common when the speaker is giving an order or telling someone what to do.

A   : I’ve got to be in Jakarta by 3.30

B    : Then you must leave immediately, because the traffic is terrible

D. Past Obligations

When talking about the past, we use had to, didn’t have to and couldn’t/wasn’t allowed to :

In my job, I had to be at the office by 8.00. We didn’t have to work hard but we couldn’t leave the office without asking for permission.

Sumber : Hand Out English Professional I Stie PGRI DEWANTARA JOMBANG by Ida Setyawati, S.Pd, M.Pd

Indeks Bahasa Inggris I

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